This research paper deals in three main sections. The first one is a brief overview of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), its annexes, and regulations, followed by section two with a brief overview of the Port State Control (PSC), and lastly, the third section deals with the interpretation of data extracted from the annual reports of the Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) to assess the effectiveness of MARPOL.

An analysis of MARPOL related deficiencies from all nine MoU has been designed. The annual reports for the past 11 years have been extracted and data relating to total inspections, total deficiencies, and deficiencies with regard to the MARPOL convention, distinguished as per annexes has been extracted and analysed using statistical tools to find out the level of implementation of the code. The extracted data has been categorized to find out the trend of the MARPOL-related deficiencies through the years and to find the annexes of MARPOL with most common and least common non-conformity.


Source: tandfonline



Port State Control (PSC) guarantees that foreign ships do not jeopardize marine safety, security, and the environment when entering foreign ports. To share inspection information and improve the efficiency of PSC, countries in the same regions cooperate and follow memoranda of understanding (MoUs). Globally, a total of ten MoUs govern three different inspection regimes designed to select and inspect substandard ships. In this study, we use a super-slacks-based measure (super-SBM) to evaluate and compare the inspection efficiency of the three inspection regimes implemented by these ten MoUs and relies on the Malmquist production index (MPI) to identify the most applicable regimes. Our analyses produce three main conclusions. First, we use the average scores of the super-SBM in the past 11 years to confirm the efficiency rankings of the ten MoUs. Second, we combine the average efficiency scores of the three inspection regimes to show that the New Inspection Regime (NIR) is more economically efficient than other inspection regimes. Third, we use MPI scores to obtain a better understanding of the efficiency changes in MoUs’ productivity over time and confirm that the NIR is more stable than other inspection regimes.


Source: sciencedirect

It is hoped that private vaccinations will be available in most countries soon but until they are, caution should be used if vaccines are offered by private entities.

The shipping industry has worked with the relevant UN bodies and made representations to the COVAX scheme, particularly since many seafarers come from countries eligible for vaccines through that scheme.

“We encourage all seafarers to be vaccinated when offered the opportunity and continue to advocate for a common global, interoperable framework for recording test and vaccination status,” says BIMCO’s Secretary General and CEO, David Loosley.


Source: bimco

Reporting on the most important port, maritime, technical and engineering measures taken in Sistan and Baluchestan ports throughout last year, Behrouz Aghaei stated that Safe and uninterrupted maritime services to shipping lines and 24-hour port services during the outbreak of Corona virus in Sistan and Baluchestan ports were provided.

The Director General of Ports and Maritime Affairs of Sistan and Baluchestan added: Providing all safe and uninterrupted maritime services to shipping lines despite disruptions in comprehensive maritime systems and seafarers’ system and coronavirus virus pandemic conditions, reducing the response time of search and rescue operations by implementing the rescue plan on the east and west coasts of the province, reducing the maritime risk and increasing the satisfaction of shipping lines by repairing and enhancing the  canal of Shahid Kalantari port, setting the record of daily loading of goods to the ship at the rate of 15,500 tons per day, unloading and transporting 11,000 tons of bulk goods per day from the ship to destinations, providing 24-hour port services during the outbreak of Covid 19 virus were among the most important measures taken by the ports and maritime authority of Sistan and Baluchestan province within last year.

“In addition, an 83% increase in imports of basic commodities, a 381% increase in exportt, an 82-fold increase in the transit of goods from Chabahar port compared to the previous year, and concluding 4 investment contracts worth more than 25000 billion Rls. were other measures taken in this port throuout last year”, said The Director General of Ports and Maritime Affairs of Sistan and Baluchestan.


Source: pmo

Port state control (PSC) inspection acts as a safeguard against maritime accidents and marine environment pollution. Due to limited inspection resources and high inspection costs, port states can only select substandard ships with high risk for inspection. Therefore, efficient and accurate identification of substandard ships is important. This study reviews the current ship selection methods used in different ports and proposed in the existing literature, then discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Based on this review, a combined model for ship risk prediction considering ship deficiencies and detention is developed and validated in this study. Reasonable and comprehensive comparisons of the proposed combined model and the current ship selection method at the Port of Hong Kong are conducted. The comparison results provide managerial insights and suggestions for Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs). This study is the first to review the ship selection methods implemented in port states and proposed in the PSC inspection literature. It is also the first study to combine the number of ship deficiencies and the probability of detention in a unified model to calculate ship risk. This study is valuable for improving the efficiency of ship selection in MoUs and thus protecting maritime transport.


Source: tandfonline


The 75th session of International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 75) has in November 2020 adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, introducing a method for fuel oil sampling from ships’ fuel oil tanks to verify the sulphur content. The new amendments will enter into force on 1 April 2022.


As a result of the introduced method, shipowners and the officers on board ships should be prepared to handle potential requests from port State Control (PSC) to sample from the ships’ bunker tanks and not only from the fuel oil line between the service tank and auxiliary engine(s).

IMO has in addition released new guidelines for on board sampling of fuel oil intended to be used or carried for use on board a ship.

BIMCO members can read more about statutory fuel sampling here and download the new guidelines for on board sampling.

In this context it continues to be crucial that countries step-up and implement and enforce a bunker licensing scheme for fuel oil suppliers operating within their jurisdiction – both to ensure that fuel oil supplied to ships actually complies with the statutory sulphur limit but also to ensure that the fuel oil meet the high-level quality targets stipulated in regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI, for instance by ensuring that fuel oil meet the parameters of ISO standard ISO 8217:2017:

“… the fuel oil shall not include any added substance or chemical waste which jeopardizes the safety of ships or adversely affects the performance of the machinery or is harmful to personnel, or contributes overall to additional air pollution.”


Source: hellenicshippingnews

  • PSC Planner web application: Available for all customers via VERACITY by DNV GL, overview of ones fleet’s PSC performance, helps to prepare for upcoming PSC inspections with ship specific short checklists
  • Pro-active PSC risk profiling for your fleet – send inquiry
  • One-day interactive PSC workshop or tailor-made trainings via DNV GL Academy
  • Ad-hoc PSC seminars and training courses on request
  • PSC news, additional guidance on technical topics from a PSC inspection view
  • Support for preparation on Concentrated Inspection Campaigns (CIC):
    • Paris MOU and Tokyo MOU will carry out a joint CIC from August – September 2019 on “Emergency Systems and Procedures”
    • This CIC will also be joined by Black Sea MoU, Med MoU, Indian MoU, Riyadh MoU and Vina del Mar MoU
    • DNV GL will offer detailed information about the topic during a smart-up session annual in August – next webinar will be in August 2020 for the CIC in 2020
    • Recordings of previous CIC smart-up can be found below under Videos and Downloads
    • Further guidance on actual and previous CICs can be found under PSC news


We are committed to transparency of information where it may help improve fleet quality. For this reason, we publish information on the port state detention performance of the Lloyd’s Register classed fleet. This helps the industry to recognise recurring risks and improve safety by highlighting those items that are hazardous to operations, yet continually produce detentions.

The detention performance information is real-time and is updated on a continuous basis and can be accessed via Class Direct. It not only details specific deficiencies and data on the number of detentions per ship (by month, quarter, year) but, importantly, includes statistical analysis on the entire Lloyd’s Register fleet. This helps to identify trends across the fleet, highlighting specific aspects which can be measured against prior performance, including:

  • detentions by ship type (oil tankers, bulk carriers, container, passenger, LNG, general cargo, etc)
  • detentions related to ship flag state
  • detentions by ship age and by detaining country
  • league tables of most prominent and recurring deficiency items

Our port state control company performance index calculator can be downloaded here




Port State Control (PSC) is the inspection of foreign ships in national ports to verify that the condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and that the ship is manned and operated in compliance with these rules.

Many of IMO’s most important technical conventions contain provisions for ships to be inspected when they visit foreign ports to ensure that they meet IMO requirements.

These inspections were originally intended to be a back up to flag State implementation, but experience has shown that they can be extremely effective. The Organization adopted resolution A.682(17) on Regional co-operation in the control of ships and discharges promoting the conclusion of regional agreements. A ship going to a port in one country will normally visit other countries in the region and it can, therefore, be more efficient if inspections can be closely coordinated in order to focus on substandard ships and to avoid multiple inspections.

This ensures that as many ships as possible are inspected but at the same time prevents ships being delayed by unnecessary inspections. The primary responsibility for ships’ standards rests with the flag State – but port State control provides a “safety net” to catch substandard ships.

Nine regional agreements on port State control – Memoranda of Understanding or MoUs – have been signed: Europe and the north Atlantic (Paris MoU); Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo MoU); Latin America (Acuerdo de Viña del Mar); Caribbean (Caribbean MoU); West and Central Africa (Abuja MoU); the Black Sea region (Black Sea MoU); the Mediterranean (Mediterranean MoU); the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean MoU); and the Riyadh MoU. The United States Coast Guard maintain the tenth PSC regime.

IMO hosted six Workshops for PSC MoU/Agreement Secretaries and Database Managers. The Workshops were funded by the IMO Technical Cooperation Fund and aimed to provide support to regional port State control regimes by establishing a platform for cooperation and also providing a forum for the people involved to meet and exchange ideas and experiences. They also aimed to encourage harmonization and coordination of PSC activities and the development of practical recommendations which can be forwarded to IMO for further examination by the Organization’s relevant Committees and Sub-Committees.


Source: imo


Rod Johnson, a former Port State Control officer, laments news the Paris MoU is likely to make its data harder to access.

You can’t put it back in the tube.

I’ll declare straight away that I spent five happy years as a Port State Control officer. Although it was only a part of my job as a flag state surveyor for the UK, it was for me the most rewarding. I am reluctantly ashore so I enjoyed the ambience of shipboard life. Most of my inspections were routine. My rewards came from those few occasions when I made seafarer lives better by calling out sloppy and unsafe ship management. Many of the masters I had to break the news of a detention to were actually relieved that something was finally being done to extract them from an impossible position. Mind you, I was lucky to be working for the UK Flag. The UK approach to PSC has always been rooted in common sense and delivered by seasoned mariners with the odd naval architect thrown in (some of them were very odd). It made it easy to use my discretion to get a result that would actually achieve something.

PSC inspections have two valuable functions. By capturing the current documentary state of a ship they provide one source of validation of who owns and operates ships which at the shallower end of the gene pool can be a moveable feast. The other one is that they monitor the health of the world fleet, shipmanagement, classification society performance and crew competence and that monitoring evidences itself in the deficiencies identified onboard. Any ship is not just a ship, it’s a part of a system.

Those deficiencies form a valuable data set that has, over time, grown to the extent that viable insight can be drawn from it.

The first modern Port State Control organisation was the Paris MoU, and that body has set the international standard for state-based ship inspection that the rest of the world has emulated. The ethos of the Paris MoU was to drive substandard ships and shipowners out of European waters by exposing them. Paris has never been afraid to name and shame, and publishes all of their findings and insight on their very entertaining website. They even provide some analytical tools to help the reader understand the messages that the data set is sending. Even better than that and in a demonstration of what world leading transparency looks like, they provide their inspection data at source for other data providers to incorporate into their products, multiplying the positive impact of all those hard working Port State Control officers. These providers include well-known brands such as Rightship.

That might come to an end next March. Under pressure from shipowners, the Paris MoU member states have agreed to stop providing data at source to industry and publish only via and

Why? Because ratings providers like RightShip are causing owners some difficulty with prospective charterers and traders. A poor vetting score can mean less work for the least well-run ships. Ironically, just as the Paris MoU has realised its original ambition to an extent incomprehensible before the Data Age, it plans to take a giant step backwards. It’s probably going to do this alone, as none of the other MoUs are indicating, at least privately, that they are going to follow the Paris example. The irony that the data shared at source between PSC MoUs is visible on Equasis to enhance its effectiveness has not been lost on me.

I can’t imagine why the Paris member states have signed up to this. Perhaps the residual oil pollution from the Erica and the Prestige is now outside the environment. Politicians have short attention spans and bureaucrats have no imagination, which may explain why this course of action has been agreed. In circumstances like this I favour Hanlon’s Razor, which states: “Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity”.

So if you are reading this in The Hague, here’s perspective on transparency. It was the right decision to provide PSC data at source to industry. Doing so pushed the Paris ethos further and faster than if this had never been done. Doing so multiplied the effect of thousands of inspections carried out by people who genuinely care about safety at sea and the lives of seafarers. If the unintended consequence was to create a ratings industry that is causing shipowners commercial difficulties then the solution is to engage with the ratings industry to help them use the data fairly. Shutting off the data feed whilst at the same time declaring that the Paris website and Equasis satisfy the transparency agenda is disingenuous. Worse than that, it’s selling out PSC inspectors, seafarers and the fine record of the Paris MoU by giving succour to a minority of shipowners who see safety as an overhead and not an enabler.

Source: splash247



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