HE JOB of a seafarer is not exactly a walk in the park.”

I usually cite this quote from the Supreme Court case of Oriental Shipmgt. vs Bastol (G.R. No. 186289 June 29, 2010) as opening statement during my paralegal lectures on seafarers’ rights.

The quote emphasizes the Supreme Court’s view on the nature of the seafarer’s work: “What makes the job more difficult, aside from exposure to fluctuating temperatures caused by variant weather changes, the job obviously entails laborious manual tasks conducted in a moving ship, which makes for increased work-related stress. All these factors may have exacerbated a seafarer’s medical condition.”

During my recent virtual lecture with maritime students of John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University in Molo, Iloilo City, I discussed the reality of their profession that a vessel has always been identified as a high-risk workplace.

The industry remains fraught with health and safety hazards that increase seafarers’ risks of accidents, illnesses and mortality, while others may go missing or die in maritime disasters.

The European Maritime Safety Agency declared in a report  that there were 745 work-related fatalities among maritime workers and nearly 9,000 persons injured between 2011 and 2020.

Some are exploited and subjected to discrimination, abuse, maltreatment, and unfair labor practices.

Pope Francis earlier said in a message that without seafarers, the global economy would come to a standstill; and without fishermen, many parts of the world would starve.

However, Pope Francis said that they face the seafaring dangers of storms and piracy, long periods of time away from their families and working conditions that are often harsh and low-paying.

Despite said risks, the seafarer, like other overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), is often looked up to as one of today’s heroes who, through huge remittances in billions of dollars they earn, have propped up our economy.

The sea-based sector’s remittance comprises at least 22 percent of the total OFW dollar remittances.

Records from the Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) showed the sea-based sector’s remittances for the past five years:  $6,870,827,000 in 2017; $6,139,512,000 in 2018; $6,539,246,000 in 2019; $6,353,522,000 in 2020; and $6,545,002,000 in 2021.

The data showed that remittances increased in 2018 by $731,315,000, then increased in 2019 by $399,734,000, then decreased in 2020 by $185,724,000, then increased in 2021 by $191,480,000.

The Scalabrini International Migration Network recently engaged in an online campaign dubbed as “No Shipping, No Shopping” that coincides with the celebration of the International Day of the Seafarer led by International Maritime Organization.

In 2010, the Conference of Parties to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) adopted a resolution establishing the Day of the Seafarer every June 25, which recognizes the valuable contribution of seafarers  to international trade and  world economy.

The international shipping industry is the life blood of the global economy as it is responsible for the carriage of around 90 percent of world trade.

Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk transport of raw materials, and the import/export of affordable food and manufactured goods would simply not be possible.

For most merchant ships trading internationally transporting every kind of cargo, it is estimated that there is one Filipino seafarer for every four to five complements on board a vessel at any time.

The Philippines is still considered as the major supplier of maritime labor globally.

Philippines Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) data indicate that the total number of seafarers deployed overseas from the country reached 376,663 in 2017; 337,502 in 2018; 469,996 in 2019 and 217,223 in 2020.

Aside from the Day of the Seafarer every June 25, the Philippines also celebrate National Seafarers’ Day (NSD) every last Sunday of September.

Then President Fidel V. Ramos issued on July 9, 1996 Proclamation No. 828 declaring Aug. 18 as NSD; the Stella Maris was tasked to coordinate with the public and private sector in activities related to the celebration of said event.

The purpose of the Proclamation is to give due recognition to the vital role of Filipino seafarers towards the development of the Philippines as a maritime country.

Later, Proclamation No.1094 was issued in 1997 by President Ramos which moved NSD to every last Sunday of September every year.

The country will be celebrating the 27th National Seafarers’ Day this year.

Source: https://www.panaynews.net/seafarers-job-not-a-walk-in-the-park/

Stream Marine Training (SMT) is demonstrating its commitment to leading the way in alternative fuels by offering Bahamas Maritime Authority- (BMA) approved Basic (BIGF) and Advanced (AIGF) Training for Service on Ships using Fuels covered within the IGF Code.

The BMA has approved the UK-based global training course provider to deliver the STCW BIGF and AIGF course by webinar.

The courses are designed to give both basic and advanced training to seafarers responsible for designated safety duties associated with the care, use, and emergency response to the fuels on board ships subject to the International Code of Safety for Ships using Gas or other low-flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code).

Seafarers undertaking the basic training course will gain knowledge of the properties of fuels covered within the IGF Code and the hazards associated with their use as a fuel; health, safety and environmental precautions and measures when working on vessels; and the transfer and storage of fuels covered within the IGF Code.

CEO of the Stream Marine Training Group, Martin White said: “We are delighted to have received BMA approval to deliver these courses. We can now offer seafarers vital basic and advanced safety training for working on vessels covered by the IGF Code both online and face-to-face.”

CEO of Stream Marine Training Group, Martin White

“Stream Marine Training is a world class provider of maritime training and has led the way in alternative fuels coaching. We are passionate about making a difference in the maritime industry and offering these courses, and this is another way to demonstrate our commitment to the IMO’s goal of reducing CO2 emissions.”
Capt Jerry Mooney, Technical and Compliance Officer in The BMA’s Seafarers and Manning Department, said: “The BMA is committed to sustainability in shipping and we are pleased to be able to approve these two courses which will train seafarers to work safely with the alternative fuels that are being introduced into the sector.”
Source: Stream Marine Training

Ship owners have sped up their newbuilding contracting activity, opting for more modern tonnage. In its latest weekly report, shipbroker Allied Shipbroking said that “the impressive performance of the newbuilding market continued for yet another week. A large part of the buying interest continues to focus for yet another week on gas carriers and more specifically LNG units, as we are still seeing a flow of orders being made on behalf of the major Qatar LNG Project that is in the works. It seems that the good feeling that exists for this sector, the positive freight rates as well as the desire to secure energy supply amidst the current global energy crisis that has emerged has increased investor appetite for these projects and in turn the number newbuilding projects that are taking shape. On the shipbuilders’ front, the lion share has been taken up by South Korean shipyards which traditionally have the higher expertise, know-how and track record for these type of vessels, though if appetite remains high for much longer, we are likely to see an overspill across to other shipbuilders as well. We have also seen a strong buying appetite hold for containership units, as earnings are still holding at record highs, while despite the lacklustre earnings performance noted in tankers, the recent freight market recovery has triggered an increase in buying interest and a fair flow of new orders this past week”


Source: Allied Shipbroking

Banchero Costa added in its report this week that “whilst still satisfactory there is a slowing of orders for larger tonnage. Big concern for the New buindings with delivery after 3 years. This week Capital Gas Greece ordered 2 x 174,000 cu.m LNG Carriers at Hyundai Samho for delivery Jan/March 2026 at a level of $240 mln per unit. These are nearly $8 mln more than 2 other greeks controlled orders done few weeks back.

Source: banchero costa &c s.p.a

Knutsen NYK Offshore OAS booker 1 firm Suezmax Shuttle Tanker 154,000 dwt at Cosco Zhoushan for delivery 2024. No price emerged. Thenamaris added 2 more Aframax LR2 Product Carriers at Hyundai Vietnam for dely mid-2025. Total 15 ships on order in Vietnam from Thenamaris, all product carriers except 4 Bulkers ordered recently”.

Meanwhile, in the S&P Market, Allied said that “on the dry bulk side, it was a rather mediocre week in terms of activity taking place, given the relatively fewer number of units changing hands. This, on the other hand, came slightly attuned with the recent downward pressure noted from the side of earnings, with many interested parties appearing to have held back interest for the time being, hoping to get a better perspective of the true market direction at play right now.

Source: Allied Shipbroking

Especially in the bigger size segments, SnP activity was sluggish, underlying the higher volatility noted. On the tanker side, the number of deals appeared stronger as of the past week. It is true that the recent incremental growth in freight rates has helped things heat up in the SnP market as well. However, given that it will take some time before any form of true market direction takes shape, we can not take this recent trend for granted. At this point, we see activity being skewed towards the MRs, relatively inline with the momentum noted in their freight rates”.

Source: banchero costa &c s.p.a

Banchero Costa commented that “after offers were invited the 16th of June Japanese controlled Panamax Lowlands Maine abt 77k blt 2005 Sasebo (SS: 03/2025 – DD: 01/2023, BWTS fitted) has been sold for $16 mln. Two weeks ago, Orient Prima and Beauty abt 76k blt 2005 Imabari were reported at $17 mln. Chinese buyers were behind purchase of Cardinal abt 55k blt 2004 Oshima (SS due July 2024 DD due June 2022 BWTS fitted) at $15.8 mln. Open hatch boxed handysize Ionian Spire abt 32k blt 2008 Kanda (SS due 2026 DD due 2024 BWTS fitted OHBS) has been sold at $17 mln to Turkish buyers. In the tanker market, Greek owners have sold their “Maran Sagitta” abt 105 k dwt blt 2009 Hyundai for $27.6 mln to c. of Performance Shipping. Furthermore, Suezmax Storviken abt 152k blt 2006 Samsung (CAP 1 SS due 2026 and BWTS fitted) was purchased by Greek buyers at $23.5 mln”, the shipbroker concluded.
Nikos Roussanoglou, Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide


The International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) has published a report, Global Specialist Offshore Support Vessel Market Overview, highlighting the risks to the US offshore energy industry should proposed crewing legislation, referred to as the American Offshore Workers Fairness Act, be passed into law by the US Senate.

According to the report, “The huge demand for US mariners, crew, and technicians to safely operate [offshore construction] vessels is materially undersupplied and there are not enough training programs and other initiatives underway to resolve this in the short term. This will be particularly true for the emerging SOV market because this work must be accomplished by coastwise qualified vessels requiring all US crew. Similarly, while not specifically categorized in this report, the offshore wind market should drive the need for coastwise CTVs and thus the demand for more qualified mariners.”

Allen Leatt, CEO of IMCA, said in a statement: “Increasing demand for the development of offshore energy sources is clear for all to see, in both the offshore wind and offshore oil and gas industries. The international fleet of construction vessels and their crew will be essential to meet national energy goals and the proposed crewing legislation will severely degrade the pace of development in the US.”

A letter to the Senate from the American Clean Power Association, signed by the CEOs of 25 companies involved in the US offshore wind industry, supports this message. The CEOs urge the Senate to exclude a provision that they say, “would derail the nascent US offshore wind industry, namely the maritime crewing language in the House-passed Don Young Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2022 (H.R. 6865) and seek other solutions to reach our shared goal of maximizing the number of domestic mariners.”

The letter notes that the crewing provision would block the use of international specialized offshore vessels “when there are currently no US-flagged specialized construction vessels to do the work needed.”

Source: https://splash247.com/report-highlights-shortage-of-qualified-mariners-to-meet-requirements-of-proposed-us-crewing-legislation/

National Security Advisor Ajit Doval

NEW DELHI: National Security Advisor (NSA) Ajit Doval on Thursday referred to as for seamless coordination amongst numerous companies concerned in the nation’s maritime safety equipment.
In an handle on the first assembly of the MultiAgency Maritime Security Group (MAMSG), Doval mentioned the companies and stakeholders in the maritime sphere must coordinate in sync with India’s general strategy of progress and improvement.
In view of geopolitical developments, seas have develop into way more necessary, he mentioned.
The assembly was chaired by the National Maritime Security Coordinator Vice Admiral (retd) G Ashok Kumar.
Kumar assumed cost because the nation’s first National Maritime Security Coordinator on February 16 this yr.
The assembly was attended by senior officers from key central authorities ministries, companies and safety forces coping with maritime affairs.
Maritime safety coordinators from 13 coastal states and Union Territories additionally attended it.
In a serious determination to reform coordination of maritime safety affairs on the apex degree, the Union Cabinet in November final authorized creation of the put up of NMSC, underneath the NSA, on the National Security Council Secretariat.
This initiative was supposed to make sure a seamless strategy to India’s maritime safety chopping throughout geographical and purposeful domains.
At the inaugural assembly, a quantity of essential coverage points on maritime safety have been taken up, together with mapping of present orders and insurance policies on maritime safety to determine gaps, evaluate of customary working procedures for maritime contingencies, safety of ports and coastal infrastructure and creation of a nationwide maritime database, officers mentioned
The MAMSG is envisaged to offer a standing and efficient mechanism to make sure coordination of all facets of maritime safety together with coastal and offshore safety, in addition to fill the technological and operational gaps in assembly current and future safety challenges.
The assembly is anticipated to handle maritime contingencies requiring an pressing and coordinated response.

Source: https://www.pehalnews.in/stakeholders-in-maritime-sphere-must-coordinate-nsa-doval-india-news-times-of-india/2181651/

The meeting aims to unite efforts of the 17 Signatory States to enhance regional maritime security and protect international trade routes

Dubai, UAE: In line with its commitment to support the security and safety of the maritime industry, the UAE hosted the 2022 high-level workshop of the amended Djibouti Code of Conduct (DCoC) concerning the Repression of Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden area.

The workshop was held between 28 to 30 June 2022, at the Intercontinental Festival City hotel in Dubai. With the presence of H.E. Eng. Suhail Al Mazrouei, the UAE Minister of Energy and Infrastructure. The workshop witnessed the presence of around 80 officials, including ministers, representing 17 countries. There were also representatives from ‘Friends of DCoC’ which includes international agencies and countries including France and the USA were present.

The latest amendment of the Djibouti Code of Conduct was adopted at the 2017 Jeddah meeting by countries in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden area.

This Code of Conduct is a major agreement in combating piracy and armed robbery against ships sailing in the region’s waters.

The Jeddah Amendment, which was developed from the initial version of the DCoC, covers measures to tackle a range of illicit activities, including piracy, arms trafficking, trafficking in narcotics, illegal trade in wildlife, illegal oil bunkering, crude oil theft, human trafficking, human smuggling, and illegal dumping of toxic waste in regional and international waters in the region.

Strategy to Support Maritime Security

Commenting on this significant meeting, H.E. Hassan Mohammed Juma Al-Mansouri, Undersecretary for Infrastructure and Transport Affairs at the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, said: “The UAE is a leading global maritime hub with the maritime economy exceeding AED 90 billion annually. Over 25,000 commercial ships call the UAE ports every year, making it a gate to the entire region. Maritime security is a key factor to sustain economic growth. Without it, the region’s countries will face major challenges. The UAE abides by all international initiatives that aim to enhance our maritime security and suppress all forms of illegal activities. We dedicate our maritime capabilities, resources and expertise to ensure that the region is free from criminal acts and abuses against humans, the environment and the wildlife.”

Al-Mansouri added: “Just as all oceans and seas around the world are connected as one large body of water, the security and the safety of ships and maritime routes are also connected, especially within the Arabian Gulf and the Western Indian Ocean region. This area has the largest energy reserves in the world as well as the most important straits and international trade routes. Affecting the maritime security of the region will have negative impacts on the global economy as a whole. That’s why, this meeting of the signatory states on the DCoC, which is hosted by us in the UAE, is significant for enhancing maritime safety worldwide.”

The Jeddah Amendment was signed by 17 countries. These are the UAE, Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, Jordan, Yemen, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, the Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa and Tanzania.

Overarching regional framework

H.E. Sheikh Nasser Al Qasimi, Assistant Under-Secretary for Infrastructure and Transport Regulation at the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure in the UAE, said: “Over the years, the emended DCoC has evolved from a piracy-centric cooperation framework into a comprehensive forum that addresses maritime security from a comprehensive perspective. Last year, the signatory states made great efforts to implement the planned Information Sharing Network and regionally prioritised Capacity Building Matrix to address the changing maritime security conditions in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden. The DCoC was further supported by the International Partners through the Friends of the Djibouti Code of Conduct to be able to collaborate in providing assistance based on the needs of the Signatory States. Today, we consolidate this cooperation, building on the previous efforts, in order to achieve the highest levels of maritime safety and security in this vital region of the world.”

Source: https://www.zawya.com/en/press-release/companies-news/uae-hosts-the-2022-high-level-meeting-of-the-amended-djibouti-code-of-conduct-legtn2zo

Toxic gas leak at Jordan's Aqaba port kills 13, injures hundreds

Authorities said a chemical storage container fell while being transported as a result of a crane malfunction.

CCTV footage showed the container being hoisted into the air and then suddenly dropping on to a ship and exploding.

A large cloud of bright yellow gas is seen spreading across the ground, sending people running for safety.

State media said on Monday night that 123 of the injured were still being treated at local hospitals for chemical exposure. Some were reportedly in a critical condition.

Chlorine is a chemical used in industry and in household cleaning products. It is a yellow-green gas at normal temperature and pressure, but is usually pressurised and cooled for storage and shipment.

When chlorine is inhaled, swallowed or comes into contact with skin, it reacts with water to produce acids that damage cells in the body. Inhaling high levels of chlorine causes fluid to build up in the lungs – a life-threatening condition known as pulmonary oedema.

Residents of Aqaba city, which is 16km (10 miles) north of the port, were advised to stay inside and close windows and doors following the leak, which happened at 15:15 (12:15 GMT) on Monday.

Aqaba’s southern beach, which is only 7km away and is a popular tourist destination, was also evacuated as a precaution, AFP news agency reported.

After several hours Minister of State for Media Affairs Faisal Shboul declared that there was no longer any risk to the city and its residents.

The Civil Defence Department sent specialist teams to the port to deal with the leak and clean-up operation.

Prime Minister Bisher al-Khasawneh flew to Aqaba and visited a hospital that was treating some of the injured.

He ordered Interior Minister Mazen Faraya to oversee a transparent investigation into the “regrettable” tragedy and to guarantee “all resources to ensure the total security of workers at the ports and all necessary precautions in relation to hazardous materials”.

The deputy director of Aqaba’s port told AlMamlaka TV that an “iron rope” carrying the container “broke” while it was being loaded on to a vessel.

The container was filled with between 25 and 30 tonnes of chlorine and was being exported to Djibouti.

Source: BBC

The maritime and shipping industry – with more than 50,000 ships on the water – emitted 1.056bn t of CO2 in 2018, about 3pc of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The recent Maritime Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) meeting in June 2021 laid down a concrete plan for minimising GHG emissions from ships by 50pc until 2050. According to the MEPC 76 meeting, vessels are required to calculate an Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) and Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) from 2023. What does this mean and what steps should be taken?


Understanding and calculating EEXI

Starting from 2023, each vessel above 400 Gt will require a one-off EEXI calculation to confirm that the vessel meets the energy efficiency design standards. An International Energy Efficiency (IEE) certificate will be awarded if the vessel meets those standards.

Take for instance, a basic 82,000 dwt Kamsarmax vessel with no energy saving devices installed:

Main engine (ME) maximum continuous rating (MCR) 14,280 kw
ME specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC) 171 gms/kwhr
Auxiliary engine (AE) MCR 5pc of main engine MCR (Assumed as per EEXI guidance)
AE SFOC 187 gms/kwhr
Vessel’s speed on the power speed curve (Vref) 15.09 knots at 75pc MCR
Fuel Constant 3.151
Reduction factor 20
EEDI/EEXI reference line parameters A = 961.79
C = 0.477


 Required EEXI:  [1-(Reduction factor/100)] * [EEXI reference line parameters A*{(Vessel’s DWT)^(minus EEXI reference line parameters C)}]
 (1-(20/100)) * (961.79*((82000)^(-0.477))) = 3.49 grams/ton-mile
 Attained EEXI:  [( pc of MCR * MCR * Fuel Constant * ME SFOC) + (5pc * MCR * Fuel Constant * AE SFOC)] / [DWT * Vref]
 ((0.75*14280*3.151*171)+(0.05*14280*3.151*187))/(82000*15.09) = 5.00 grams/ton-mile

Based on the above calculations, the vessel does not meet EEXI’s requirements, because the attained EEXI (5.00 gms/t-mile) is greater than the required EEXI (3.49 gms/t-mile). So the vessel will have to reduce its MCR to comply with the EEXI regulation, and to attain the IEE Qualification.

 IEE Qualification:  [Required EEXI * (DWT * Vref)-( 5pc * MCR * Fuel Constant * AE SFOC)/(MCR * Fuel Constant * ME SFOC)
 (3.49*(82000*15.09)-(0.05*14280*3.151*187))/(14280*3.151*171) = 0.506

Based on the calculation above, the vessel can meet compliance standards if the main engine runs at 50.6pc MCR, where the attained EEXI matches the required EEXI. The vessel will be given the IEE certificate, if the main engine’s MCR continues to operate below 51pc and adjusts to the corresponding speed on the power speed curve (13.24 knots in this instance).

The formula to calculate EEXI was derived from the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). EEDI is applicable to new ships built on or after 1 January 2013. Vessels built on or after 2013, with a valid IEE are not required to calculate EEXI. Some of the variables used in the EEXI formula are listed below:

EEDI/EEXI reference line parameter values:

Ship type A B C
Bulk Carrier 961.79 dwt 0.477
Gas Carrier 1,120 dwt 0.456
Tanker 1,218.8 dwt 0.488
Container ship 174.22 dwt 0.201
LNG carrier 2,253.7 dwt 0.474


 Reference line  = a * b ^ (-c)
 Required EEDI / EEXI  = [1 – (Reduction factor/100)] * Reference line


EEDI reduction factor:

Reduction factors (in percentage) for the EEXI relative to the EEDI reference line
Ship type Ship size Reduction factor
Bulk carrier 200,000 DWT and above 15
20,000 and above but less than 200,000 DWT 20
10,000 and above but less than 20,000 DWT 0-20*
Gas carrier 15,000 DWT and above 30
10,000 and above but less than 15,000 DWT 20
2,000 and above but less than 10,000 DWT 0-20*
Tanker 200,000 DWT and above 15
20,000 and above but less than 200,000 DWT 20
4,000 and above but less than 20,000 DWT 0-20*
Containership 200,000 DWT and above 50
120,000 and above but less than 200,000 DWT 45
80,000 and above but less than 120,000 DWT 35
40,000 and above but less than 80,000 DWT 30
15,000 and above but less than 40,000 DWT 20
10,000 and above but less than 15,000 DWT 0-20*
LNG carrier 10,000 DWT and above 30
*    Reduction factor to be linearly interpolated between the two values dependent upon ship size.
The lower value of the reduction factor is to be applied to the smaller ship size.


Are vessels compliant once EEXI is achieved? What is CII?

The Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) is a measure of how efficiently a ship transports goods or passengers – linking carbon emissions to vessel capacity and vessel movement. The ship is given an annual rating ranging from A to E. All vessels above 5,000 Gt are required to attain and document an annual operational CII, to be verified against the required annual operational CII, according to the MEPC 76.

The ship is then given an annual rating ranging from A to E, by comparing the attained annual CII of a ship with the direction and distance it deviates from the required CII (DD vector for short).

Ship type Ship size DD vectors (after exponential transformation)
exp(d1) exp(d2) exp(d3) exp(d4)
Bulk carrier dwt 0.86 0.94 1.06 1.18
Gas carrier 65,000 dwt and above dwt 0.79 0.89 1.12 1.36
less than 65,000 dwt dwt 0.85 0.95 1.06 1.25
Tanker dwt 0.82 0.93 1.08 1.27
Container Ship dwt 0.83 0.94 1.07 1.19
LNG carrier 100,000 dwt and above dwt 0.91 0.98 1.05 1.11
less than 100,000 dwt dwt 0.77 0.91 1.12 1.37

Required Carbon Intensity Indicator

Taking the same basic 82,000 dwt Kamsarmax vessel used above:

Average Speed 13.24 knots (basis 50.6pc MCR)
Sailing days 292 days (75pc sailing 25pc at port)
Distance travelled 92,786 nm
Average fuel consumed 32t/day
Fuel Constant 3.151
Sailing days 292 days (75pc sailing 25pc at port)
CII reference line parameters A = 4,977
C = 0.626
2023 CII reduction factor 5pc


Required CII:  [CII reference line parameters A * {DWT^(minus CII reference line Parameter C)}]*[1-(CII reduction factor/100)]
 ((4977*(82000^(-0.626))*(1-(5/100))) = 3.97 grams/ton-mile
CO2 emitted per annum:  Fuel consumed * 1,000,000 (convert tons to grams) * Fuel constant
 9344*1000000*3.151 = 29,443e^6 grams
Ton-mile:  DWT*Distance sailed
 82000*92786 = 5,595e^6
Attained CII:  CO2 emitted per annum / ton-mile
 29443e^6/5595e^6 = 3.87 grams/ton-mile
Annual rating:  Attained CII / Required CII compared to DD vector
 3.87/3.97 = 0.97 (C rating)


A basic Kamsarmax with an annual rating of 0.97 is between DD vectors d2 (0.94) and d3 (1.06), and so receives a C rating. The annual rating would be an A for a bulk carrier, if it was at or lower than 0.86 (d1), and B if it was above superior boundary (0.86), but equal to or below the lower boundary (0.94). Vessels that receive A, B, or C ratings, will be issued a statement of compliance. Vessels that receive a D for three consecutive years, or an E rating, will be given a year to develop a corrective action plan that will enable the vessel to achieve at least a C rating. The Statement of Compliance to these vessels will not be issued unless the corrective action plan is reflected in a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) and is verified by the administration or authorised organisations (vessel classification societies).

What are the various ways to implement SEEMP and make a vessel EEXI and CII compliant?

  1. Proper maintenance of the vessel’s hull at dry dock.
  2. Coating the vessel’s hull with good paint to increase hydrodynamic performance.
  3. Improve the vessel’s steering configurations.
  4. Have a more efficient aft-ship, propeller, and rudder arrangements.
  5. Reduce energy consumption in main and auxiliary engines, auxiliary machineries, air conditioning, and other minor energy consumers.
  6. Weather routing and choosing the best route for transportation of cargo.
  7. Using efficient energy saving devices.
  8. Slow steaming of the vessel.
  9. Using of alternative fuels instead of high-sulphur fuel oil or very low-sulphur fuel oil (VLSFO).

As a note, SEEMP plans cannot be applied across a company or fleet-wide, as these plans are ship specific and have to be implemented according to the vessel type, cargoes carried, ship routes, and other relevant factors.

Melting ice in the Arctic Ocean could yield new trade routes in international waters, reducing the shipping industry’s carbon footprint and weakening Russia’s control over trade routes through the Arctic, a study found.

With climate change rapidly warming the world’s oceans, the future of the Arctic Ocean looks grim. Climate models show that parts of the Arctic that were once covered in ice year-round are warming so quickly that they will be reliably ice-free for months on end in as few as two decades. The Arctic’s changing climate will endanger countless species that thrive in sub-zero temperatures, scientists say.

Another critical consequence of melting ice in the Arctic? The potential for shorter, more eco-friendly maritime trade routes that bypass the Russian-controlled Northern Sea Route.

In a new study, a pair of climate scientists at Brown University worked with a legal scholar at the University of Maine School of Law to predict how Arctic Ocean ice melt could affect the regulation of shipping routes over the next few decades. They projected that by 2065, the Arctic’s navigability will increase so greatly that it could yield new trade routes in international waters — not only reducing the shipping industry’s carbon footprint but also weakening Russia’s control over trade in the Arctic.

The study was published on Monday, June 20, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“There’s no scenario in which melting ice in the Arctic is good news,” said Amanda Lynch, the study’s lead author and a professor of Earth, environmental and planetary sciences at Brown. “But the unfortunate reality is that the ice is already retreating, these routes are opening up, and we need to start thinking critically about the legal, environmental and geopolitical implications.”

Lynch, who has studied climate change in the Arctic for nearly 30 years, said that as a first step, she worked with Xueke Li, a postdoctoral research associate at the Institute at Brown for Environment and Society, to model four navigation scenarios based on four likely outcomes of global actions to halt climate change in the coming years. Their projections showed that unless global leaders successfully constrain warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius over the next 43 years, climate change will likely open up several new routes through international waters by the middle of this century.

According to Charles Norchi — director of the Center for Oceans and Coastal Law at Maine Law, a visiting scholar at Brown’s Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, and one of the study’s co-authors — those changes could have major implications for world trade and global politics.

Norchi explained that since 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has given Arctic coastal states enhanced authority over primary shipping routes. Article 234 of the convention states that in the name of “the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels,” countries whose coastlines are near Arctic shipping routes have the ability to regulate the route’s maritime traffic, so long as the area remains ice-covered for the majority of the year.

Norchi said that for decades, Russia has used Article 234 for its own economic and geopolitical interests. One Russian law requires all vessels passing through the Northern Sea Route to be piloted by Russians. The country also requires that passing vessels pay tolls and provide advance notice of their plans to use the route. The heavy regulation is one among many reasons why major shipping companies often bypass the route’s heavy regulations and high costs and instead use the Suez and Panama canals — longer, but cheaper and easier, trade routes.

But as the ice near Russia’s northern coast begins to melt, Norchi said, so will the country’s grip on shipping through the Arctic Ocean.

“The Russians will, I’m sure, continue to invoke Article 234, which they will attempt to back up with their might,” Norchi said. “But they will be challenged by the international community, because Article 234 will cease to be applicable if there’s no ice covered-area for most of the year. Not only that, but with melting ice, shipping will move out of Russian territorial waters and into international waters. If that happens, Russia can’t do much, because the outcome is driven by climate change and shipping economics.”

According to Lynch, previous studies have shown that Arctic routes are 30% to 50% shorter than the Suez Canal and Panama Canal routes, with transit time reduced by an estimated 14 to 20 days. That means that if international Arctic waters warm enough to open up new pathways, shipping companies could reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by about 24% while also saving money and time.

“These potential new Arctic routes are a useful thing to consider when you recall the moment when the Ever Given ship was stranded in the Suez Canal, blocking an important shipping route for several weeks,” Lynch said. “Diversifying trade routes — especially considering new routes that can’t be blocked, because they’re not canals — gives the global shipping infrastructure a lot more resiliency.”

And it’s better to ask questions about the future of shipping now, Lynch said, rather than later, given how long it can take to establish international laws. (For context, she said, it took 10 years for world governments to negotiate the Convention on the Law of the Sea.) Lynch hopes that kicking off the conversation on the Arctic’s trade future with well-researched scholarship might help world leaders make informed decisions about protecting the Earth’s climate from future harm.

“Flagging these coming changes now could help prevent them from emerging as a crisis that has to be resolved rapidly, which almost never turns out well,” Lynch said. “To actually craft international agreements with some forethought and deliberation is certainly a better way to go.”

Source: https://www.marinelink.com/news/melting-arctic-ice-transform-497627