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Fines imposed under the General Data Protection Regulation have increased by almost a half over the past year as European authorities flexed their regulatory muscles despite disruption caused by the pandemic. A total of €272m has been levied in fines by European data protection authorities since the introduction of the GDPR in 2018. Over half of those penalties were imposed by Italy and Germany. According to research by DLA Piper, €159m of those fines were imposed in the past 12 months, an increase of nearly 40 per cent on the first 20-month period after GDPR came into force.